Posts Tagged ‘case-based reasoning’

Learning from Human Demonstrations for Real-Time Case-Based Planning

One of the main bottlenecks in deploying case-based planning systems is authoring the case-base of plans. In this paper we present a collection of algorithms that can be used to automatically learn plans from human demonstrations. Our algorithms are based on the basic idea of a plan dependency graph, which is a graph that captures the dependencies among actions in a plan. Such algorithms are implemented in a system called Darmok 2 (D2), a case-based planning system capable of general game playing with a focus on real-time strategy (RTS) games. We evaluate D2 with a collection of three different games with promising results.

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Learning from Human Demonstrations for Real-Time Case-Based Planning

by Santi Ontañón, Kane Bonnette, Praful Mahindrakar, Marco Gómez-Martin, Katie Long, Jai Radhakrishnan, Rushabh Shah, Ashwin Ram

IJCAI-09 Workshop on Learning Structural Knowledge from Observations, Pasadena, CA, July 2009

On Similarity Measures based on a Refinement Lattice

Retrieval of structured cases using similarity has been studied in CBR but there has been less activity on defining similarity on description logics (DL). We present an approach that allows us to present two similarity measures for feature logics, a subfamily of DLs, based on the concept of “refinement lattice”. The first one is based on computing the anti-unification (AU) of two cases to assess the amount of shared information. The second measure decomposes the cases into a set of independent “properties”, and then assesses how many of these properties are shared between the two cases. Moreover, we show that the defined measures are applicable to any representation language for which a refinement lattice can be defined. We empirically evaluate our measures comparing them to other measures in the literature in a variety of relational data sets showing very good results.

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On Similarity Measures based on a Refinement Lattice

by Santi Ontañón and Enric Plaza

in ICCBR 2009, LNAI 5650, pp 240 – 255

Emotional Memory and Adaptive Personalities

Believable agents designed for long-term interaction with human users need to adapt to them in a way which appears emotionally plausible while maintaining a consistent personality. For short-term interactions in restricted environments, scripting and state machine techniques can create agents with emotion and personality, but these methods are labor intensive, hard to extend, and brittle in new environments. Fortunately, research in memory, emotion and personality in humans and animals points to a solution to this problem. Emotions focus an animal’s attention on things it needs to care about, and strong emotions trigger enhanced formation of memory, enabling the animal to adapt its emotional response to the objects and situations in its environment. In humans this process becomes reflective: emotional stress or frustration can trigger re-evaluating past behavior with respect to personal standards, which in turn can lead to setting new strategies or goals.

To aid the authoring of adaptive agents, we present an artificial intelligence model inspired by these psychological results in which an emotion model triggers case-based emotional preference learning and behavioral adaptation guided by personality models. Our tests of this model on robot pets and embodied characters show that emotional adaptation can extend the range and increase the behavioral sophistication of an agent without the need for authoring additional hand-crafted behaviors.

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Emotional Memory and Adaptive Personalities

by Anthony Francis, Manish Mehta, Ashwin Ram

Handbook of Research on Synthetic Emotions and Sociable Robotics: New Applications in Affective Computing and Artificial Intelligence, IGI Global, 2009

On-Line Case-Based Planning

Some domains, such as real-time strategy (RTS) games, pose several challenges to traditional planning and machine learning techniques. In this paper, we present a novel on-line case-based planning architecture that addresses some of these problems. Our architecture addresses issues of plan acquisition, on-line plan execution, interleaved planning and execution and on-line plan adaptation. We also introduce the Darmok system, which implements this architecture in order to play Wargus (an open source clone of the well-known RTS game Warcraft II). We present empirical evaluation of the performance of Darmok and show that it successfully learns to play the Wargus game.

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On-Line Case-Based Planning

by Santi Ontañón, Neha Sugandh, Kinshuk Mishra, Ashwin Ram

Computational Intelligence, 26(1):84-119, 2010.

Stochastic Plan Optimization in Real-Time Strategy Games

We present a domain independent off-line adaptation technique called Stochastic Plan Optimization for finding and improving plans in real-time strategy games. Our method is based on ideas from genetic algorithms, but we utilize a different representation for our plans and an alternate initialization procedure for our search process. The key to our technique is the use of expert plans to initialize our search in the most relevant parts of plan space. Our experiments validate this approach using our existing case based reasoning system Darmok in the real-time strategy game Wargus, a clone of Warcraft II.

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Stochastic Plan Optimization in Real-Time Strategy Games

by Andrew Trusty, Santi Ontañón, Ashwin Ram

4th Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE-08), Stanford, CA, October 2008

Real-Time Plan Adaptation for Case-Based Planning in Real-Time Strategy Games

Case-based planning (CBP) is based on reusing past successful plans for solving new problems. CBP is particularly useful in environments where the large amount of time required to traverse extensive search spaces makes traditional planning techniques unsuitable. In particular, in real-time domains, past plans need to be retrieved and adapted in real time and efficient plan adaptation techniques are required.

We have developed real-time adaptation techniques for case-based planning and specifically applied them to the domain of real-time strategy games. In our framework, when a plan is retrieved, a plan dependency graph is inferred to capture the relations between actions in the plan suggested by that case. The case is then adapted in real-time using its plan dependency graph. This allows the system to create and adapt plans in an efficient and effective manner while performing the task.

Our techniques have been implemented in the Darmok system, designed to play WARGUS, a well-known real-time strategy game. We analyze our approach and prove that the complexity of the plan adaptation stage is polynomial in the size of the plan. We also provide bounds on the final size of the adapted plan under certain assumptions.

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Real-Time Plan Adaptation for Case-Based Planning in Real-Time Strategy Games

by Neha Sugandh, Santi Ontañón, Ashwin Ram

9th European Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (ECCBR-08), Trier, Germany, September 2008

Situation Assessment for Plan Retrieval in Real-Time Strategy Games

Case-Based Planning (CBP) is an effective technique for solving planning problems that has the potential to reduce the computational complexity of the generative planning approaches. However, the success of plan execution using CBP depends highly on the selection of a correct plan; especially when the case-base of plans is extensive.

In this paper we introduce the concept of a situation and explain a situation assessment algorithm which improves plan retrieval for CBP. We have applied situation assessment to our previous CBP system, Darmok, in the domain of real-time strategy games. During Darmok’s execution using situation assessment, the high-level representation of the game state i.e. situation is predicted using a decision tree based Situation-Classification model. Situation predicted is further used for the selection of relevant knowledge intensive features, which are derived from the basic representation of the game state, to compute the similarity of cases with the current problem. The feature selection performed here is knowledge-based and improves the performance of similarity measurements during plan retrieval. The instantiation of the situation assessment algorithm to Darmok gave us promising results for plan retrieval within the real-time constraints.

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Situation Assessment for Plan Retrieval in Real-Time Strategy Games

by Kinshuk Mishra, Santi Ontañón, Ashwin Ram

9th European Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (ECCBR-08), Trier, Germany, September 2008

On-Line Case-Based Plan Adaptation for Real-Time Strategy Games

Traditional artificial intelligence techniques do not perform well in applications such as real-time strategy games because of the extensive search spaces which need to be explored. In addition, this exploration must be carried out on-line during performance time; it cannot be precomputed. We have developed on-line case-based planning techniques that are effective in such domains. In this paper, we extend our earlier work using ideas from traditional planning to inform the real-time adaptation of plans. In our framework, when a plan is retrieved, a plan dependency graph is inferred to capture the relations between actions in the plan. The plan is then adapted in real-time using its plan dependency graph. This allows the system to create and adapt plans in an efficient and effective manner while performing the task. The approach is evaluated using WARGUS, a well-known real-time strategy game.

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On-Line Case-Based Plan Adaptation for Real-Time Strategy Games

by Neha Sugandh, Santi Ontañón, Ashwin Ram

23rd AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-08), Chicago, IL, July 2008

Case-Based Reasoning for Game AI

Computer games are an increasingly popular application for Artificial Intelligence (AI) research, and conversely AI is an increasingly popular selling point for commercial games. Although games are typically associated with entertainment applications, there are many “serious” applications of gaming, including military, corporate, and advertising applications. There are also what the so called “humane” gaming applications—interactive tools for medical training, educational games, and games that reflect social consciousness or advocate for a cause. Game AI is the effort of taking computer games beyond scripted interactions, however complex, into the arena of truly interactive systems that are responsive, adaptive, and intelligent. Such systems learn about the player(s) during game play, adapt their own behaviors beyond the pre-programmed set provided by the game author, and interactively develop and provide a richer experience to the player(s).

In this talk, I discuss a range of CBR approaches for Game AI. I discuss differences and similarities between character-level AI (in embedded NPCs, for example) and game-level AI (in the drama manager or game director, for example). I explain why the AI must reason at multiple levels, including reactive, tactical, strategic, rhetorical, and meta, and propose a CBR architecture that lets us design and coordinate real-time AIs operating asynchronously at all these levels. I conclude with a brief discussion on the very idea of Game AI: is it feasible? realistic? and would we call it “intelligence” if we could implement all this stuff?

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Google Tech Talk: Case-Based Reasoning for Game AI

by Ashwin Ram

Google Tech Talk, Mountain View, CA, April 2008

Adaptive Computer Games: Easing the Authorial Burden

Game designers usually create AI behaviors by writing scripts that describe the reactions to all imaginable circumstances within the confines of the game world. The AI Programming Wisdom series provides a good overview of current scripting techniques used in the game industry. Scripting is expensive and it’s hard to plan. So, behaviors could be repetitive (resulting in breaking the atmosphere) or behaviors could fail to achieve their desired purpose. On one hand, creating AI with a rich behavior set requires a great deal of engineering effort on the part of game developers. On the other hand, the rich and dynamic nature of game worlds makes it hard to imagine and plan for all possible scenarios. When behaviors fail to achieve their desired purpose, the game AI is unable to identify such failure and will continue executing them. The techniques described in this article specifically deal with these issues.

Behavior (or script) creation for computer games typically involves two steps: a) generating a first version of behaviors using a programming language, b) debugging and adapting the behavior via experimentation. In this article we present techniques that aim at assisting the author from carrying out these two steps manually: behavior learning and behavior adaptation.

In the behavior learning process, the game developers can specify the AI behavior by demonstrating it to the system instead of having to code the behavior using a programming language. The system extracts behaviors from these expert demonstrations and stores them. Then, at performance time, the system retrieves appropriate behaviors observed from the expert and revises them in response to the current situation it is dealing with (i.e., to the current game state).

In the behavior adaptation process, the system monitors the performance of these learned behaviors at runtime. The system keeps track of the status of the executing behaviors, infer from their execution trace what might be wrong, and perform appropriate adaptations to the behaviors once the game is over. This approach to behavior transformation enables the game AI to reflect on the issues in the learnt behaviors from expert demonstration and revises them after post analysis of things that went wrong during the game. These set of techniques allow non-AI experts to define behaviors through demonstration that can then be adapted to different situations thereby reducing the development effort required to address all contingencies in a complex game.

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Adaptive Computer Games: Easing the Authorial Burden

by Manish Mehta, Santi Ontañón, Ashwin Ram

AI Game Programming Wisdom 4 (AIGPW4), Steve Rabin (editor), Charles River Media, 2008